The development of the Turkish missile defense system is conducted with the assistance of China, which in 2013 won a tender T-LORAMIDS (Turkish Long Range Air And Missile Defense System) to supply to Turkey anti-aircraft missile systems of medium and long range.
Replying to a parliamentary inquiry, the Turkish Minister of Defense noted that the Chinese bid was the best. According to other sources, a key advantage of HQ-9 was a lower price with acceptable performance specifications. Under pressure from NATO partners, Turkey extended the tender, but the decision to go with the Chinese system still remained unchanged.
It has been reported that as the result of the tender Turkey will acquire at least 12 sets (divisions) of the anti-aircraft missile system (AAMS) HQ-9, developed and manufactured by the so-called “Second Academy” of the Chinese state corporation China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC). HQ-9 is a Chinese analogue of the Soviet / Russian line AAMS S-300P. A number of sources, including the Russian military blog bmpd, note that the development of HQ-9 could be the result of cooperation between the Chinese and Russian companies.
Other bidders in the tender by T-LORAMIDS during the final stages were represented by the alliance of Raytheon and Lockheed Martin AAMS Patriot (a combination of PAC-2 GMT and PAC-3); represented by the European consortium Eurosam AAMS SAMP / T (with missiles Aster 30 Block 1); and represented by JSC Rosoboronexport AAMS S-300VM Antey-2500. Previously, Rosoboronexport refused to provide Turkey with AAMS S-400 which had been offered in the early stages of the tender.
NATO officials have repeatedly warned Turkey from going with Russian or Chinese offers, explaining it by potential problems of integration of “non-Western” systems into a unified air defense system of the NATO.